Katılma Tarihi: 18 eylul 2005
RELIGION PROFESSED IN THE QURAN
|Gönderen: 30 kasim 2019 Saat 00:16 | Kayıtlı IP
What may be the deviations between the religious system actually practiced as Islam and the religion described in the Quran?
In the coming chapters we shall be dealing in detail with the Islam
propounded in the Quran and the Islam in which traditions have a large
ORIGINS OF ISLAMTo find out the deviations in
question, we must trace back to the origins of Islam. Having
established the fact that the Quran is the only authority of Islam, we
shall consult it whenever we are asked to provide answers to questions
put to us. For instance, if somebody wants to know if the practice
whereby some Muslim women veil themselves and avoid contact with men
not related to them is dictated or not in the Quran, we shall have to
look it up in the Quran, and having concluded after careful research
that there is no such thing, we shall be in a position to safely state
that the Quran has no such exhortation. In such a case, the
traditionalists would refer to books on Islamic catechism and to
their sheikhs, and arrive at the conclusion that the segregating of
women and men does figure in the Quran and is a binding duty. (For
illustration of the way to understand Islam by sheer reference to the
Quran, see Chapters 35, 37 and 38.)
Having examined these issues, we are faced with the question of
whether the Quran is a sufficient source for the practice of Islam. The
Quran is complete and self-sufficient. What is more, the fact that it
is the only source of the Islamic religion is explicitly stated in it.
For dissenters, the Quran needs to be supplemented by hadiths, the
general concurrence and agreement in opinion and decision of legalists
and analogy. In the present book, we shall try to prove that
pronouncements other than those in the Quran are not reliable. If we
can prove that even the hadiths cannot be an auxiliary source for the
practice of the Islamic religion, the other sources enumerated above
will necessarily lose their validity.
The Quran is not self-sufficient, according to traditionalists.
Yet, the verses we have quoted in this section form conclusive
evidence, proving that the Quran is indeed self-sufficient and that it
is a book that clarifies everything, as it contains all the detailed
information necessary. To state that the Quran is not self-sufficient
and that there is need for supplementary sources is tantamount to
acting against the dictates of the Quran. We shall not pass over the
issue by mere reference to the verses quoted above, but demonstrate,
from different perspectives, the error committed by those who insist on
supplementary sources, and show the spuriousness of words attributed to
the Prophet and their contradictory and irrational character.
DOUBTERS OF THE SELF-SUFFICIENCY OF THE QURANThose
who think that the Quran is not self-sufficient will reason on the
grounds that they belong to such and such a sect or order. The hadith
scholars, the experts in the canon law of Islam and the commentators on
the Quran, will contend that unless a person has made studies in their
respective domains, Islam cannot be understood properly, and that the
Quran is not accessible to the public at large. Was religion revealed
then only for the few and not for all of humanity? Did the Prophet
belong to a particular sect or order? What were the sects or orders of
the Four Caliphs? Are there such sects as Hanafi, Shafi, Shii and
Wahabi in the Quran? Does the Quran refer to itself when it uses the
expression the only guide or does it also mention Bukhari, Muslim and
the Twelve Imams, the books on Islamic catechism or the consensus of
the wise men of a community? We must examine the verses of the Quran
and try to find answers to these and see if the Quran is
self-sufficient or not.
89 - And We have sent down to you the Book explaining all things, a guide, a mercy and glad tidings for those who submit.
16 The Honey Bees, 89
As one can clearly see from this verse, the Quran explains
everything and is the only guide. If so, why refer to Bukhari or Muslim
or to the books on Islamic catechism? Since we can plainly see in the
Quran, why insist on appealing for the help of such sects as Hanbali,
Shafi, Hanafi, Shii, Jaferi and Maliki? Considering that God styled us
as Muslims (submitters), must we use such designations as Sunni, Shii
and Shafi considering that the attribute Muslim falls short of the
THE COMMAND IS FOR NONE BUT GOD40 - The
command is for none but God; He has commanded that you worship none but
Him: that is the right religion, but most people do not know.
12 Joseph, 40
They have no guardian other than Him, nor does He share his command with anyone.
27 - Recite what has been revealed to you of the Book of your Lord.
No one can change His words and no one will you find as a refuge than
18 The Cave, 26 -27
The sharing of Gods command would be an act of heresy. Judgments
based on the interpretations of sects, the consensus of the learned,
and the analogies and hadiths do not come within the purview of Gods
command. To equate them with religion means transferring the
legislative power to persons other than God who can not share His
command. Personal opinions of individuals cannot supersede religion,
Sura The Cave, 27, is explicit about mans only refuge, God. No one can
change His words; and yet sects have dared to do so. Gods words, in
which He has revealed His will, are in the Quran. There is no other
source that can be said to belong to God. Given the fact that the
command belongs only to God (Sura Joseph, 40), and the fact that He
does not share His command with any person whatsoever, we have to
accept the Quran as the unique source of the Islamic religion. If we
espouse the view that the books that do not belong to God (like the
hadiths or the books on Islamic catechism) may also be taken as a
source of religion, we cannot avoid being accused of heresy. The
authors of the books referred to as Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Davud or the
sects like Hanafi, Shafi, Jafari should not be equated with God.
33 - Whose word is better than one who calls to God and works righteousness and says I am one of the submitters.
41 Elucidated, 33
115 - The Word of your Lord is complete in truth and in justice. No one can change His words. He is the Hearer, the Knower.
6 The Cattle, 115
Islam, Gods religion, was completed during the lifetime of the
Prophet. The Quran was written, learned by heart and became the source
of the Islamic religion. Books that compiled the hadiths, the sayings
of Muhammad, began to appear one or two hundred years after his death.
While it was made explicit in the Quran that Gods Words could not be
changed by anyone, for some reason or other, the carriers found the
Quran not sufficient enough and began looking for new sources.
According to this mentality, the ijtihads (canonical jurisprudence) of
Imam Shafi, the fatwas of the Twelve Imams and the clarifications of
the Hanafi Imams have completed the revelation. According to these
personages, religion was not complete before their contributions.
Moreover, the advocates of traditionalism not being content with this,
dared to repeal the commentaries of the Quran, superseding them with
hadiths and their own interpretations (see Chapters 25, 26) and
violated the statement of the verse that said: No one can change His
THE QURAN CONTAINS ALL DETAILS114 - Say: Shall I seek for judge other than God? When He it is Who sent unto you the Book, explained in detail.
6 The Cattle, 114
The Quran makes no reference to other books, sheikhs, books on
Islamic catechism or explanations of the hadiths. It explicitly says
that it has spoken in detail. Under the circumstances, if we cannot
find in the Quran a particular prohibition, a detail or a prayer, it
should follow that the alleged prohibition, the act or the prayer in
question simply does not exist. For instance, the fact that there is no
reference to the wearing of silk or to the eating of mussels or shrimp
means that they are considered edible. One should look up in the Quran
for a ban or a prohibition of a certain act and not for the execution
of particular deeds. For example, the absence of a prohibition against
the wearing of silk would be enough to deduce that it is permissible.
There is no need for a special provision that would allow the wearing
of silk. This mentality is inherent in the following verse:
101 - O you who believe, ask not about things which if made
known to you would give you trouble; and if you ask about them when the
Quran is being revealed, they will be made known to you. God has
overlooked them and God is Forgiving, Forbearing.
5 The Feast, 101
To spare trouble for His creatures, God makes no mention of a great
many things. Had He done so, the responsibilities on the shoulders of
men would have increased. God repeatedly states that religious
practices are easy to perform and that His intention is not to create
difficulties for men. However, the inventors of the hadiths and the
sectarians make every effort to create difficulties in the name of
religion by their commentaries, as if God had forgotten to explain the
points which they tackle. Whatever religion prohibits is evil, but
religion does not have to state every act which should preferably be
avoided. Responsibilities that religion commands must be performed.
Thus, points left out from the text of the Quran must be interpreted as
acts depending on our free discretion. All additions to it must
immediately be eliminated.
GOD NEVER FORGETS64 - And your Lord never forgets.
19 Mary, 64
God, our Lord, is omniscient; it follows that He knows what we need
to know about religion. Points left to our discretion are meant to be a
mans elbowroom. Are those people who deem it necessary to supplement
the Book, with the intention of interpolating new details in the text,
consider themselves wiser than God, and believe to accomplish what God
has, according to them, left incomplete? For example, while God has not
described the clothes to be worn by the woman stating that she is to
cover herself from a given part of her body to another part, how dare
they do so in the name of the Almighty? Why have they tried to
interpolate their opinions in the practice of Islam? Their rationale
may be a topic of discussion, but clothing the woman in a particular
uniform is but casting aspersion upon God and His religion (See
Chapters 17, 18).
51 - It is not sufficient for them that We have revealed the Book to you which is read out to them.
29 The Spider, 51
Alas, the Quran seems to be not good enough for the
traditionalists. The Word of the Quran does not satisfy those who dare
rewrite the Quranic text by interpolating thousands of hadiths and
viewpoints of the sectarian chiefs in the practice of religion. They
are not satisfied, because the Quran does not veil the woman as the
traditionalists seem to imagine, because it does not prohibit arts and
sculpture and does not decree uniforms with turbans, robes with full
sleeves and long skirts nor recommend men to grow a beard, thus
promoting the customs of the Arabs. This is why many people prefer to
become members of the Hanafi, Shafi, and Shii sects rather than being
the Muslim as put forth in the Quran. For these prohibitions, which do
not exist in the Quran, are incorporated in the creeds of these sects.
Instead of learning what the Quran says, these people prefer to figure
out a religion in their minds and look for it in the Quran, and when
they fail to find it in it, they say the items are missing. Eventually,
the Quran proves not to be sufficient for certain miscreants and
NOTHING HAS BEEN OMITTED FROM THE BOOK38 - Nothing have We omitted from the Book.
6 The Cattle, 38
Considering that God states that nothing has been omitted from the
Book, those who make use of the Book as a prayer recited for the souls
of the departed and who are enchanted by its music are ignorant of its
meaning. They try to supersede the Quran with books on Islamic
catechism, to replace the meaning of it by incantations, to substitute
the dead for the living and to favor the Islam of the sectarians in
total disregard of the Quran. They seem to be doomed to remain in the
dark unless they begin to pay due attention to the meaning inherent in
it and be more concerned with the living than the dead.
154 - What is the matter with you? How do you judge?
155 - Why do you not take heed?
156 Do you have solid proof?
157 Then bring your Book, if you are truthful.
37 Who Stand in a Row, 154-157
36 - What is the matter with you? How do you judge?
37 Have you a book through which you learn?
38 In it, do you find anything you want?
68 The Pen, 36-38
49 You shall judge between them in accordance with Gods revelations to you.
5 The Feast, 49
These verses point to the fact that religious commands are from
God. All other injunctions and admonitions are false, null and void in
religious terms. If a given word or behavior attributed to the Prophet
is brought forth as evidence for an act not mentioned in the Quran, the
hadith in question is sure to be unfounded; or it may have been a
personal opinion of the Prophet which is of no consequence in religious
terms. It is explicitly stated in the Quran (Sura The Feast, 49) that
the Prophet lived solely by the Quran, the Book that contains all the
religious prescriptions. If we take the Quran as our only guidance, we
are sure to be on the right path and have no need for any further
authority. (We shall study the issue of obedience to God and His
prophets in Chapter 27.)
69 - This is nothing but a reminder and a Quran making things evident (mübiyn).
36 Yasin, 69
The Arabic word mubin, comes from beyan (evident, clear). The same
expression is encountered in such verses as 26 The Poets 2; 27 The Ant
1; 28 The History 2.. These statements that declare that the Quran is
clear enough as an answer to those who contend that the Quran can be
understood only by reference to the hadiths and the sayings of the
imams of religious schools. In verse 79 of Sura The Ant, the Prophet is
addressed with the following words: So put your trust in God, you are
following the evident truth. It is the Quran that reveals the truth to
the Prophet. Therefore, all that is attributed to the Prophet is valid
so long as it is sanctioned by the Quran. The Quran, which is clear, is
a sufficient source for us to understand both it and the Prophet.
ACTING ACCORDING TO THE QURAN IS ACTING ACCORDING TO THE PROPHET45 - Say: I do but warn you according to revelation.
21 The Prophets, 45
19 - This Quran has been revealed to Me that I may warn you
6 The Cattle, 19
15 When Our clear signs are recited to them, those who do
not hope to meet Us say Bring a Quran other than this, or change it.
Say It is not for me to change it of my will. I follow only what is
revealed to me.
10 Jonah, 15
We observe clearly that the revelation that the Quran contains the
only source that the Prophet drew on, the Book denied by disbelievers
who wanted to make alterations to it. The duty of the Prophet was to
relate the Quran revealed unto him. Therefore, to follow the path of
the Quran is to follow the path of the Prophet. The Prophet is referred
to in the Quran more often than not with the attribute of messenger.
His mission was to carry on the messages he received from God to
mankind. There is no reference to any other source or book. Had God
deemed it necessary He would have referred us to other revelations and
sources to believe in. Nevertheless, we observe today hundreds of
volumes on hadiths and canonical jurisprudence claiming an authority
tantamount to the authority of the Quran. While the authority of the
Quran is absolute, being the only source of Islam, today it has come to
be considered merely as one of the books on Islam. Its role has been
reduced to an absolute minimum. The Quranic verses we have quoted above
plainly reject this mentality that belittles the Quran and attributes
invented sayings to Muhammad.
THE QURAN LEADS MAN FROM DARKNESS TO LIGHT4 You are on a straight path.
5 A revelation from the Mighty, Merciful.
36 Yasin, 4-5
1 This is a Book We have sent down to you that you may lead
people out of darkness into the light, by their Lords will, to the
path of the Mighty, the worthy of praise.
14 Abraham, 1
This Book (the Quran) leads mankind from darkness to light. The
people who live by the Quran draw their power from verses like the ones
quoted above. Where do they draw their power, those who act in
accordance with Tirmizi, Muvatta, Bukhari and Muslim, claiming them to
be sources of the established religion, daring thus to adulterate the
exclusivity of the Quran? The Quran was written and learned by heart
during the lifetime of the Prophet. It contains no contradictions or
illogicalities. There was no other source committed to paper during the
lifetime of Muhammad. Moreover, as we shall see in the forthcoming
chapters when we deal with the hadiths and sectarian pronouncements,
they contradict their own statements, let alone the Qurans contents.
What has become of the position of the Quran, the harbinger that
surpasses human intelligence? Where do the outdated contrived hadiths
and sects that caused men to dodge Islam stand now? (From Chapter 4 to
Chapter 12 we shall deal with the self-contradictory statements
claiming to supplement Islam and see whether they are tenable or not.)
SIMILAR CORRUPTIONS ALSO EXIST IN JUDAISM AND CHRISTIANITY43 - And how do they make you a judge and they have the Torah wherein is Gods judgment?
5 The Feast, 43
47 The people of the Gospel shall judge in accordance with
Gods revelations therein. And those who do not judge in accordance
with what God has revealed are transgressors.
5 The Feast, 47
Prior to Islam, God had also sent down books through His prophets,
requesting them to live by them. The Jews had received the Torah that
contained all the details they were supposed to know. Yet Gods Word
failed to satisfy them. Their scrupulous attention to detail described
in verses 67 and 71 of Sura Bakarah continued after the death of Moses.
They produced the Mishnah and the Gamara. Islam then is not the only
religion wherein false attributions have been made to smother the
religion in details under the guise of hadiths and sunna, the code of
behavior of the Prophet. According to the Quran, Christians took Christ
for God and priests as their lords, and there came a time when they
themselves lost faith in the priesthood they had fabricated. Parables
in the Quran are meant to indicate certain truths. There are people who
believe that they should not be mixed up with the Jews and the
Christians. Yet, people who style themselves as authorities are in no
way sanctioned by the Quran. All their evidence consists of
assumptions. Evidences are their very selves. They are pluralists.
Their argument is based on the fact that since great masses believe in
traditions they cannot possibly err. While the majority of Christians
literally take Jesus Christ as the Son of God, there are also
Christians who interpret this expression as a simile, believing that
God cannot possibly beget children, and consequently, Christ could not
be the Son of God, but a man who was among the chosen who enjoyed
divine favor and was a prophet like all other prophets. How should we
arbitrate between these ingenious arguments? Should one side with the
minority or with the Catholic and Orthodox ecclesiastics who maintain
that Jesus is the Son of God? Moreover, the number of those who claim
him to be the Son of God is greater than the Muslim traditionalists.
The contention of the Christian majority may be formulated with the
following words: Look how many men have acknowledged Christ as the Son
of God. Our saints were holy men who had devoted themselves to preach
the Gospel and act according to it. How can we say that they have been
in error and you, in the minority who claim to be wiser than our
saints, spiritual guides and priests, speak the truth? Muslim
traditionalists are in a similar position. The verses of the Quran
clearly indicate that imitation of the majority would lead man to
perdition. (See Chapter 11 for Caliph Omars burning the hadiths
saying: the Mishnah of my community, Chapter 29 for issues related to
the Christians and Jews; and Chapter 33 about those who side with
34 - We have sent down to you verses making things evident
and examples from the past generations, and a warning for those who
take heed for themselves.
24 The Light, 34
that those who died might die after an evidence and those who lived might live after an evidence.
4 The Spoils of War, 42
Evidences according to the Quran must be explicit. Practices, based
on traditions, conventions, customs and usage, are not sanctioned;
general approval, no matter how wide it is, is not compatible with the
Quran. The Quran is evidence itself. Those who adopt the Quran as the
source of Islam are on the straight path.
THINGS NOT DISCLOSED IN THE QURAN ARE OUTSIDE THE SPHERE OF RELIGION89 We have cited for the people in this Quran all kinds of examples, but most people insist upon disbelieving.
17 The Children of Israel, 89
65 - See how we explain the signs by various symbols that they may understand.
6 The Cattle, 65
52 We have given them a Book that is fully detailed with knowledge, guidance and mercy for people who believe.
7 Purgatory, 52
1 - This is a Book with verses basic on fundamental of
established meaning. Further explained in detail, from One Who is wise
and well acquainted.
11 Hud, 1
We observe from the above quotations that the Qurans statements
are clear, explicit and detailed. Statements like The Quran refers to
other books; the details should be learned from other sources
contradict the contents of the Quran. A declaration like We dont
understand the Quran conflicts with the message of the Quran. Those
who follow closely the injunctions and recommendations of the Quran
shall understand it. A close examination of the verses will reveal that
all necessary details are contained in it. For instance, a person in
dire need, who cannot find food, may eat the flesh of a dead animal, or
drink its blood, pork or the flesh of beasts slaughtered in the name of
deities other than God. The things that a person should do when he is
obliged to have his hair trimmed for reasons of health on his way to
pilgrimage are prescribed in the Quran. The Quran also contains the
nocturnal prayer prescribed only for the Prophet. The Quran also states
that Abu Lahab would refuse to be converted, and the Romans who had
lost a battle would, in the near future, gain a victory; events
observable during the lifetime of the Prophet. These and many other
such examples are evidences of the Qurans references to details. The
number of people in dire need obliged to eat food normally prohibited
in the Quran, should certainly not be so considerable. A person who
must trim his hair for health reasons on his way to pilgrimage must
surely be an exception. Such rare instances are contained in the Quran,
as we may observe. Marrying ones mother or maternal aunt, as everybody
knows, is an abomination, yet even such a detail is contained in the
Quran. The Quran that mentions even the Sabbath prohibitions for the
Jews would have certainly stated other bans had there been any. The
Quran that prescribed measures for the man obliged to trim his hair on
his way to pilgrimage would have certainly described the way a woman
should veil herself had there been any such prescription. Had there
been a ban on the consumption of mussels and shrimp, it would have been
so stated. Considering that the night prayer was foreseen for the
Prophet only, all other prayers ordained would have certainly been
mentioned, had there been any to be performed.
How can one claim that the Book God sent does not include
everything as far as religion is concerned. And yet, the number of
those who think otherwise is considerable. Can one conceive Gods
advising referring to any source other than His own Word? Can one
imagine that what God has sent has holes that need to be filled up? Had
there been such a need, God would have increased the number of volumes
of His Book as it would have been declared not self-sufficient. Can one
imagine that God has revealed only a part of Islam and left the second
part to be discovered by interpreters? Gods vocabulary is surely rich
enough for that. In brief, He has no need for commentaries and
interpretations of sects.
27 - If all the trees on earth were pens and the ocean, with
seven oceans behind it to add to its supply, yet would not the words of
God be exhausted. He is Mighty, Wise.
31 Loqmaan, 27
THERE IS NO NEED FOR COMMENTARIES, HADITHS, BOOKS ON ISLAMIC CATECHISM, ETC.32
Those who disbelieved said: Why did the Quran not come to him all at
once? It was sent thus We may keep your heart resolute. So We
enunciated it by steps and distinctly.
33 There is not an example they advance to which We do not give you the truth and the best commentary (ahsena tafsir).
25 The Distinguisher, 32-33
The infidels have often been warned in the Quran; therefore, their
protests are directed to the Quran. All interpretations and
commentaries are included in the Quran. The only place where the Arabic
word tafsir is mentioned is in the verse quoted above. God says that
the best commentary of the Quran is the Quran itself. A considerable
number of books entitled Commentary (tafsir) on the Quran contain
hadiths that are judged to be companions to it. While the Quran is the
commentary, other commentaries are superfluous and cannot be taken as
sources. Islam may be understood without reference to commentaries.
2 Taught the Quran
55 Gracious, 1-2
17 Surely its collection and recitation is Our responsibility.
18 So, as We recite it, follow its reading.
19 Then it is We who will explain it.
75 The Resurrection, 17-19
God has assumed the task of teaching and explaining the Quran. In
other words, the Quran is self-explanatory. If in a given verse, an
explanation has remained unclear; in another verse everything becomes
clear. So the Quran has no need for hadiths, commentaries or canonical
jurisprudence. There is no mention in the Quran about the need to refer
to such books. The Quran states that it is God who will teach and
explain everything in the best manner possible. As an instance of this
we can refer our readers to Sura Prologue, 4, where it is said that God
is the Master of the Day of Religion. Readers of the Quran who want to
know what the Day of Religion means may refer to the following verses
to understand what it means: 15 Al Hijr 35; 26 The Poets 82; 37 Who
Stand on Row 20; 38 Sad 78; 83 The Cheaters 11. Having read through
them they come to the conclusion that it means the day when we shall be
raised from the dead. As we observe from this, whatever we are after in
the name of religion exists in the Quran. The Quran is
THE PROPHETS COMPLAINTWe must place the Quran
in the center of Islam and be aware of the fact that abiding by the
Quran means living up to the standards of the Prophet, and free our
religion from falsehoods. The Prophets only complaint addressed to God
30 The messenger will say: O my Lord! My people have deserted this Quran.
25 The Distinguisher, 30
Actually, this is the behavior of many disciples of the Prophet.
The Quran is supposed to have a privileged place, it is holy; yet, it
has become a book that people do not follow. It has turned out to be
just one of the religious books. People learn their religion from books
on Islamic catechism. The Quran is recited today not to be understood
but to be heard.
All the verses and clarifications we have tried to mention point to
one thing: that the Quran is the only source of Islam. In the coming
pages we shall refer to other supplementary evidences in proof of this.
However, the verses we have already quoted are sufficient to prove that
the Quran is the only source. We shall have the opportunity to display
the despair resulting from basing beliefs on hadiths, sects, religious
orders and traditions.